Technical Documents

Conflux is a fast, scalable and decentralized blockchain system that optimistically processes concurrent blocks without discarding any as forks. The Conflux consensus protocol represents relationships between blocks as a directed acyclic graph and achieves consensus on total order of the blocks. Conflux then, from the block order, deterministically derives a transaction total order as the blockchain ledger. We evaluated Conflux on Amazon EC2 clusters with up to 20k full nodes. Conflux achieves a transaction throughput of 5.76 GB/h while confirming transactions in 4.5-7.4 minutes. The throughput is equivalent to 6400 transactions per second for typical Bitcoin transactions. Our results also indicate that when running Conflux, the consensus protocol is no longer the throughput bottleneck. The bottleneck is instead at the processing capability of individual nodes.

Technical Presentation

The scalability issue of the current blockchain

Undesirable user experience

Long processing delay caused by low throughput

Skyrocketing transaction fees

Naive Solution

Generate a lot of forks

Cannot decide consistent total order of blocks in forks

Forks waste resources and harm safety

Conflux Solution

Use Parent and Reference edges to construct Tree-Graph

Introduce pivot chain and epoch to consistently determine total order of blocks and transactions

Use GHAST rule to secure the pivot chain

Results show > 3000tps